Society • 08 November, 2017

October Revolution Centenary: The Rise of Socialism

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The October Revolution left a mark on the history of all humankind, creating a new social order that had not exist before in the world. This year revolution marks its 100th anniversary.

What was the position of the Kazakhs before the October Revolution? The answer to this question is quite simple. Before the October Revolution, the Kazakh people were under the yoke of Russian colonial policy. In the years filled with dramatic events, beginning in 1917, when the Reds attacked and the White retreated, the Alash figures selflessly fought for the long-awaited independence. However, history ordered in its own way. Mustafa Chokay wrote that when it came to the interests of the Kazakhs, the white Russians united with the Red Russians and continued their former colonization.

In this connection, the following question arises: What benefits did the revolution bring to the Kazakhs? Studying this question for a certain time, we drew attention to the weakening of certain manifestations of colonial policy in the attitude of the Kazakh people, systematically pursued by Royal Russia.

One of them is the policy of mass baptism of Kazakhs. This campaign was planned for a long time, and for this purpose, it was even planned to attract troops. Gradual Russification officially began in 1868. The program was adopted, which was to be implemented in stages in 1892, 1898, 1902, and 1916.

The Tzar issued the decree to create cathedral in Vernyi (Almaty), the city in Turkestan region, to baptize Muslims. Those who refused to accept new religion were to be punished. However, the Russian-Japanese War in 1905, The First World War in 1914-1918 and The October Revolution intervened in the implementation of the empire`s evil intention.

Thanks to the October Revolution, Kazakhstan took its modern territory. Russia’s territorial reform in 1867-1868 divided the Kazakh territory into three general-governorships: Turkistan, Orynbor, and Western Siberia. After twenty years, the Kazakh steppe consisted of two general-governorships: Turkistan and Steppe.

The Soviet government, created after the October Revolution, began to consolidate the distribution of the territory and create republics under the Union. The peoples who were under the yoke of royal Russia had land disputes and disagreements. At that time, the territory of the resettlement of the Kazakhs, who were part of the former imperial Russia, reached 2,960,000 square kilometers and included 6 provinces, the Aday region, the Karakalpak region. That is, it exceeded the current territory (2724 thousand square kilometers) by 236 thousand square kilometers. In fact, this meant the second place in the occupied area in the RSFSR after Yakutia (according to the USSR atlas of 1928).

The idea of transferring such a vast territory to the Kazakhs was met with active resistance. On August 9-10, 1920, under the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, under Lenin's chairmanship, the question of clarifying the borders of the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) ASSR was discussed. S.Pestkovsky, A.Zhangeldin, A.Kulakov, A.Myrzagaliyev, A.Alibekov, P.Petrovsky on behalf of the Kazakh ASSR, S.P.Milyutin, D.Temiraliev, A.Ermekov, Orazayev from the regional centers of Kazakhstan participated in the meeting.

The leader of the meeting, Lenin adhered to the principle "Land must be transferred to the most numerous people." Thus, by decree of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee of September 22, 1920, the newly formed Kazakh ASSR was additionally transferred to the Orynbor province and the city of Orynbor, where the first constituent congress of the Soviets of Kazakhstan was held from 4 to 12 October. The city of Orynbor became the first capital (1920-1925) of Kazakhstan. Thanks to the perseverance of Kazakh citizens, representatives of the leadership of the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR and the support rendered to them by Lenin, it was possible to preserve the territory of present Kazakhstan.

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