Machines Solving Problems of Speech

Егемен Қазақстан
12.12.2018 355

By Cade Metz

(Nicolas Ortega)

In August, researchers from the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, a lab based in Seattle, Washington state, unveiled an English test for computers. It examined whether machines could complete sentences like this one:

On stage, a woman takes a seat at the piano. She

a) sits on a bench as her sister plays with the doll.

b) smiles with someone as the music plays.

c) is in the crowd, watching the dancers.

d) nervously sets her fingers on the keys.

For you, an easy question. But for a computer, it was pretty hard. While humans answered more than 88 percent of the test questions correctly, the lab’s A.I. systems hovered around 60 percent. Among experts, that was impressive.

Two months later, a team of Google researchers revealed a system called Bert. Its improved technology answered those questions just as well as humans did — and it was not even designed to take the test.

Bert’s arrival punctuated a significant development in artificial intelligence. Over the last several months, researchers have shown that computer systems can learn the vagaries of language and apply that knowledge to specific tasks.

These systems may improve technology as diverse as digital assistants like Alexa and Google Home as well as software that automatically analyzes documents at law firms and other businesses.

“Each time we build new ways of doing something close to human level, it allows us to automate or augment human labor,” said Jeremy Howard, the founder of Fast.ai, a lab based in San Francisco, California.

It may even lead to technology that can — finally — carry on a decent conversation.

But on social media services, this research could also lead to more convincing bots designed to fool us into thinking they are human, Mr. Howard said.

Researchers have shown that rapidly improving A.I. techniques can facilitate the creation of fake images that look real. As these kinds of technologies move into the language field, Mr. Howard said, we may need to be more skeptical than ever online.

These new language systems learn by analyzing millions of sentences written by humans. These new language systems, made possible by gains in computer processing power, learn by analyzing millions of sentences written by humans. A system built by OpenAI, a lab based in San Francisco, analyzed thousands of books. Google’s Bert analyzed these same books plus all of Wikipedia.

Each system developed a particular skill. OpenAI’s technology learned to guess the next word in a sentence. Bert learned to guess missing words anywhere in a sentence. But in mastering these specific tasks, they also learned about how language is pieced together.

If Bert can guess the missing words in millions of sentences, it can also understand many of the fundamental relationships between words in the English language, said Jacob Devlin, the Google researcher who oversaw the creation of Bert.

This kind of technology is “a step toward a lot of still-faraway goals in A.I., like technologies that can summarize and synthesize big, messy collections of information to help people make important decisions,” said Sam Bowman, a professor at New York University.

Last month, Google “open sourced” its Bert system, so others can apply it to additional tasks. Mr. Devlin and his colleagues have already trained it in 102 languages.

But there is reason for skepticism that this technology can keep improving quickly because researchers tend to focus on the tasks they can make progress on and avoid the ones they can’t, said Gary Marcus, a New York University psychology professor. “These systems are still a really long way from truly understanding running prose,” he said.

© 2018 New York Times News Service

LATEST

16.01.2019

Education Ministry posts new online Kyrgyz language courses

16.01.2019

Turkey donates military equipment to Gambia

16.01.2019

Eni to further increase production optimization activity in Turkmenistan

16.01.2019

Over 140 public services to be transferred to electronic format in 2019 — Dinara Shcheglova

16.01.2019

Astana Opera prepares for Eugene Onegin premiere

15.01.2019

Kazakh President send a telegram of congratulations to Nikol Pashinyan

15.01.2019

Biometric parameters can replace electronic signatures for receiving some public services

15.01.2019

Government considers measures to ensure product safety: Quality control enhanced

15.01.2019

Kazakh PM instructs to improve quality of public services in electronic format

15.01.2019

​Kazakh Foreign Minister Holds Bilateral Meetings with Central Asian Foreign Ministers

15.01.2019

Kazakh cenbank holds rate, may hike in March

15.01.2019

Mongolia to hold Spring Golden Eagle Festival in March to boost tourism

15.01.2019

New captain of Kazakhstan men's boxing team selected

15.01.2019

Malaysian company intends to create fish farming cluster in Uzbekistan

15.01.2019

Unified E-Shanyraq system to increase transparency of work of housing cooperatives and charging of services — Zhienbayev

15.01.2019

Resource savings from installing house heat meters amounted to 30-40% — Housing and Communal Services

14.01.2019

Kazakh President send a telegram of condolences to the family of Greco-Roman wrestling coach Vadim Psarev

14.01.2019

Nikol Pashinyan appointed Armenia PM

14.01.2019

Meeting of the Government of Kazakhstan to be held Jan. 15 in Ukimet Uyi

14.01.2019

Executive director of FC Astana appointed

COLUMNISTS

Aliya Ashim, Journalist

Brazil’s version of Trump: why is it a «wake-up call» for the world?

<p style="text-align: justify;">A racist, a homophobe, a misogynist, a pro-torturer. Because of the profane outbursts and verbal abuse, he has earned such an image and was even considered as a political clown. Once he insulted lawmaker claiming that she was too ugly to be worth of raping. What is more, he said that he’d rather have a dead son than a gay one. Therefore, analysts concluded that Brazil has elected the most extremist president among democratic countries. So why did Brazil decide to make «really radical shift»? How did such an «extreme» and «unpleasant» figure become a president?<br /> </p>

Jylkybay Jagyparuly,

Mechanical engineering is a potential pillar of the economy

In industrialized countries, one of the most important indicators of the economy is the level of development of the machine-building industry. Independent Kazakhstan, striving to achieve ambitious goals, is making great efforts to develop machine building in the process of diversifying its economy.

Alisultan Kulanbay,

June 4 - Day of State Symbols of Kazakhstan

State symbols - the State Flag, State Anthem and State Emblem demonstrate to the world the independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan, also continuity between the past, the present and the future of the state.

Ainash ESALI,

Is it all good that they advertise?

Advertising is the driving force of production and business. This is an indisputable fact.

Nazira RAKHMANKYZY, Film critic

Splash of commercial films in Kazakhstan

Last year, the number of feature films which filmed reached thirty-six in Kazakhstan. We should say that it is an unprecedented figure in the history of Kazakh cinema in the last quarter century.

Comments(0)

ADD A COMMENT